Situations to use Transactional Leadership in Team


Transactional leadership occurs when the leader rewards the team member, depending on the adequacy of the team member’s performance. Transactional leadership depends on contingent reinforcement, either positive contingent reward (CR) or the more negative active or passive forms of management-by-exception (MBE-A or MBE-P). [1]

Here are some situations I can think of.

* Use CR – when you found team member is motivated with some kind of reward & you can arrive a mutual agreement with your team member on reward he is getting after the work done is expected fashion.

* Use MBE-A – when you don’t want a mistake/error done by your team member propagates further that may jeopardize the project. You actively get the statuses, problems, challenges, develop processes, ensure adherence of project processes, conduct reviews, etc so that no error goes beyond certain time period. This really required when you manages a critical project & have time to do micro management. This is used when team member is having less experience in the work area. MBE-A may be required and effective in some situations, such as when safety is paramount in importance[2].

* Use MBE-P – when you don’t really care much about the errors or deviance as soon as it occurred. You have some time to correct them & they are not critical. This is followed when team member is having good experience in the area of working.
Leaders sometimes must practice passive MBE when required to supervise a large number of subordinates who report directly to the leaders[2]

Reference:

1. Significant Behaviors of Transactional Leadership –https://leadershipchamps.wordpress.com/2008/09/19/significant-behaviors-of-transactional-leadership/
2. Transformational Leadership (Second Edition) BY Bernard M. Bass, Ronald E. Riggio, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.,2006

Q & A – Which one to Adopt Transactional or Transformational Leadership?


One college student asked me a Question – “Which between the two should be adopted. My lecturer says transactional leader is best 4 efficiency and effectiveness. How true is this?”

My Answer:

To best of my knowledge, I agree with the existence of both leadership styles in everyone. As we displayed & practiced transactional leadership for many decades – it was considered as the best approach, but there is no complete truth in that. One need to evaluate the situation and decide whether to go with Transactional or Transformational & should not stick on to one in all situations.

Your lecturer says so because he practiced transactional in many (appropriate) situations & found to be producing results. Also transactional is practiced by teachers a lot – “praise the student who gets high grade and punish the one who takes lesser. As they get good results from their class, they will get good name from principal”. They will understand the real taste of teaching if they start practicing Transformational.

Transformational Leadership in FB – Infographics


This is Infographics representation of one of my blog post “How do we practice transformational leadership in facebook?“. This is my first attempt in creating the Infographics format. I see Infographics uses some of the components of Mind Mapping for its attractiveness – more graphics with highlighted keywords.

Infographic-Transformational Leadership in facebook

Infographic-Transformational Leadership in FB

Be a Catalyst


Change is constant in our life and each change pushes us towards our expectation or away from it. In every action, environment plays a major role in direction change. Here I used the environment for ‘people, events, factors’ which surrounds us at any given point of time. In one or the other way, we are getting inspiration & motivation from these environmental components. These environmental components acts as catalyst & produces results.

In Chemistry we use the word catalyst to represent any substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction by reducing the activation energy, but which is left unchanged by the reaction.

Catalyst

In the same way, people around you acts as catalyst & increases the inspiration/motivation that makes you to reach our expected results. Those who are helping us in taking better decisions, make a change without having them affected by the whole process, we can call them as Leaders.

We are also acting as catalyst in someone’s life and bringing a welcome change in them. I see Transformational Leadership can also be termed as Catalytic Leadership as both deals with mingling with followers at their current level, helping them to move to a higher level along with you.

Transformational Leader – The leader who recognizes the transactional needs in potential followers “but tends to go further, seeking to arouse and satisfy higher needs, to engage the full person of the follower … to a higher level of need according to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs” … Bass

Be a catalyst.. You can be a better Transformational Leader too..

How do we practice transformational leadership in facebook?


Have you ever thought facebook is so useful in keeping yourself updated with all your near & dears?

I find facebook gives one more level of service which no one thought about!! – YES! It gives excellent way to show your leadership skills.

It exactly delivers the transformational leadership components on every post that one makes!

Let us look at how it does –

1. Individual consideration: This component says “everyone is not same & we need to give individual attention based on their current level” How facebook gives this: You communicate your friend in individually on their wall. Even it is common post, you may address your comments specific only to a friend by using @friend name. In this way, you make an individual who interacts with you feel more comfortable as you converse with them in their level.

2. Intellectual Simulation: “Has anyone thanked you for the suggestions or comments that you provided helped them getting out of a trouble they faced?” Then you already practicing Transformational Leadership.

Sometimes even the options that we share may not suits exactly to that situation but that induces more thinking about the solution for the problem that they are facing – This is ‘Intellectual Simulation’ component of Transformational Leadership. I found facebook has really wonderful way to express your views in one-to-one or one-to-many relationships. Authors, business leaders, individuals help friends by giving comments that lives longer than their life time.

3. Idealized Influence: Are you getting lot of comments & likes for the posts that you make in your facebook updates? There may be positive responses or negative. You are impacting visitor who reads your posts even you don’t get the responses. Your influence is more & it is greater than one-to-one conversation.

In case the way you present is not liked by many, as a leader, change the way you tell that is accepted by your followers. Most of the time, you are respected & admired by your followers. They have a separate place for you in their heart. You have absolute trust on your followers and they also have it for you. In any situation, you show high standards of conduct.

4. Inspirational Motivation: Inspiration? Motivation? so much literature on this topic & got frustrated about any book that says about it? You like these words when you put in practice in one book called ‘facebook’.

Every news feeds, status updates, videos, links – what do you expect? Something funny.. but meaningful.. right? Take every care on your facebook updates to reflect what you have in mind – but inspires or motivates someone who reads it. At least make some attempt to make an impression about it.

Motivation really comes down to inspiration. Since motivation comes from within, it is a form of self-inspiration. This process is nurtured by watching others achieve their goals.

Most often it is developed by following the example of leaders who do the right thing for people, communicate frequently, empower vigorously, coach regularly, and sacrifice for others.

Summation of Transformational Leadership was given excellently in Reference [1]. It is a nice gist and has almost all activities of Transformational Leadership.

1. Leaders have high moral and ethical values.
2. Leaders express genuine interest in followers.
3. Leaders have an inspirational vision.
4. Genuine trust exists between leaders and led.
5. Followers share leader’s values and vision.
6. Leaders and followers perform beyond self-interest.
7. Participatory decision-making is the rule.
8. Innovative thinking and action is expected.
9. Motivation is to do the right thing.
10. Leaders mentor.

Compare these 10 points with explanations about practicing them in facebook, you will feel the real power as transformational leader.

Reference

[1] Transformational Leadership by Colonel Mark A. Homrig, 21 Dec 2001. Retrieved on 08th Jan 2009 from http://leadership.au.af.mil/documents/homrig.htm

Want to add some more about these components? Please feel free to comment…

Transformational leadership Studies & Hypotheses


Leadership is such an wonderful area of study where the exploration happens everyday endlessly! Some theories become old and obsolete – some theories are debatable – some theories are profoundly interesting. Compared to other theories, Transformational leadership is somewhat new, explored everyday due to its popularity, interesting in nature and there is an easy way to get results using Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire™ (shortly MLQ™).

MLQ™ is the most widely used instrument to assess transformational leadership theory [9] and “is considered the best validated measure of transformational and transactional leadership” [10- p. 338]. With the help of MLQ™, leadership behavior can be evaluated and trained accordingly. MLQ™ has history from 1980s. Right now, MLQ™ Form 5X (developed by Bass & Avolio. 1995)[8] and its modified versions are used for transformational leadership studies.

Here is the steps: Start with a question on leadership & its relationship with something. Then circulate MLQ™ to target audience. Get the results and compare it against your assumptions. Create your Hypotheses.

Here are few examples:

Question: Is Similarity in Leadership Related to Organizational Outcomes? [4]

Hypotheses:

H1:  Perceived similarity between superiors and their leaders with respect to transformational leadership is: 1) positively related to positive outcomes, and b) negatively related to negative outcomes.

H2:  In addition to perceived leadership, perceived similarity between superiors and their leaders explains unique variance in outcome variables.

H3:  The correlations between transformational leadership and outcomes can be ranked as follows:  SHTL – SLTL / DHTL – DLTL.

Question: Gender differences in transformational leadership among the field leaders of New South Wales Police students [5]

Hypotheses:

Female leaders would attract universally higher ratings on factors thought to be associated with greater effectiveness as a leader. That is, it was expected that female police leaders would be viewed as being more transformational and less laissez-faire than males.

Furthermore, it was expected that female leaders would attract higher effectiveness ratings and that followers would be more satisfied with their female leaders.

Ultimately, followers who had female  leaders would also be expected to expend a higher degree of effort at work/in training.

Question: What mechanisms explain the positive effect of transformational leadership?[6]

Hypotheses:

H-1 Transformational leadership has a positive effect on job satisfaction.
H-2 This impact is partially mediated through job characteristics and intrinsic work motivation.
H-2-1 Transformational leadership has a positive effect on job characteristics.
H-2-2 Job characteristics have a positive effect on intrinsic work motivation.
H-2-3 Intrinsic work motivation has a positive effect on job satisfaction.

Job characteristics partially mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and job satisfaction. This was not found for intrinsic work motivation. The results of this study underline the impact of transformational leadership on perceived job characteristics and employees’ job satisfaction.

NOTE: MLQ™ is trade marked product and you can contact Mind Garden® for further enquiry – Mind Garden® is a registered trademark of Mind Garden, Inc. All the hypotheses work are outcome of respective authors work and not my opinion on those questions.

References:

1. Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire™ – The benchmark measure of transformational leadership – Bernard M. Bass & Bruce J. Avolio – from web site URL: http://www.mindgarden.com/products/mlq.htm

2. The Full Range Leadership Model™ – http://www.mlq.com.au/flash_frlm.asp

3. 41 5 Transactional and transformational Leadership – document retrieved from web site URL – http://www.diss.fu-berlin.de/diss/servlets/MCRFileNodeServlet/FUDISS_derivate_000000001791/05_05_kapitel.pdf;jsessionid=E9EEB7BF0A73678BF5AC450F3F84F2F2?hosts=

4. Is Similarity in Leadership Related to Organizational Outcomes?  The Case of Transformational Leadership March 28, 2005 – document retrieved from web site URL –

http://leadershipcenter.osu.edu/library/publications/leadership-discoveries/2005/march-2005-is-similarity-in-leadership-related-to-organizational-outcomes-the-case-of-transformational-leadership

5.Gender differences in transformational leadership among the field leaders of New South Wales Police students – document retrieved from web site URL – http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.89.1734&rep=rep1&type=pdf

6. The influence of transformational leadership on job satisfaction: The mediating role of Job characteristics and intrinsic work motivation Bösch Walser, R., & Heilmann, T., Social and Economic Psychology, University of Zurich – document retrieved from web site URL – http://www.psychologie.uzh.ch/sowi/team/heilmann/documents/BoeschHeilmann_Poster_eawop2009.pdf

7. DEMO profile of MLQ output http://www.testcentral.ro/files/mlq_f_en.pdf

8. Bass, B. M. and Avolio, B. J. 1997. Full range leadership development: Manual for the multifactor leadership questionnaire, CA, Mind Garden.

9. Kirkbride, P. 2006. ‘Developing transformational leaders: the full range leadership model in action’, Industrial and Commercial Training, Vol. 38, No. 1 pp.23-32.

10. Ozaralli, N. 2003. ‘Effects of transformational leadership on empowerment and team effectiveness’, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 24, No. 6, pp 335-344.

What is getting transformed in Transformational Leadership?


Whenever I take Transformational Leadership topic, one or the other person eagerly asks – “What is getting transformed?”. I thought it would be nice to share my answer views in a post quoting few references.

James MacGregor Burns says:

Transforming leadership occurs when one or more persons engage with others in such a way that leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality by transforming leadership which ultimately becomes moral in that it raises the level of human conduct and ethical aspirations of both the leader and led and, thus, has a transforming effect on both.[1]

Transformation will elevate and discipline the inner soul of both leader & follower.  Hence goals, values, principles, motivation and morality of both leader and follower will be one and the same at one point of time — it is like one soul two body. In such case, no supervision needed — each one knows what to do in different situations.  This is the ultimate goal of leadership.

Due to difference in human thinking & nature,  each one of us differ in skill level to perform an activity. Kelley (1995) indicates that leadership and followership are equal but different activities often played by the same people at different times. Individuals who assume leadership roles have sound visioning, interpersonal and organizational skills, and the desire and willingness to lead. Effective followers are distinguished by their capacity for self-management, strong commitment and courage.[2]

Summation of Transformational Leadership was given excellently in Reference [2].  It is a nice gist and has almost all activities of Transformational Leadership.

1. Leaders have high moral and ethical values.
2. Leaders express genuine interest in followers.
3. Leaders have an inspirational vision.
4. Genuine trust exists between leaders and led.
5. Followers share leader’s values and vision.
6. Leaders and followers perform beyond self-interest.
7. Participatory decision-making is the rule.
8. Innovative thinking and action is expected.
9. Motivation is to do the right thing.
10. Leaders mentor.

References:
1. James MacGregor Burns, Leadership , New York: Harper & Row, 1978), pp.4, 20

2. Transformational Leadership by Colonel Mark A. Homrig, 21 Dec 2001. Retrieved on 08th Jan 2009 from http://leadership.au.af.mil/documents/homrig.htm